Saturday, May 23, 2020

Mutation Essay - 1023 Words

Mutation Mutation, by Robin Cook, is a twisted and scientific adventure, of a mans dream to create the perfect son. He succeeds in his quest yet, his results are not what you might say praiseworthy. Victor, the main character, tried to create the perfect son. He later discovers that his so-called perfect son, VJ, is not who and what he thought. VJ is a mastermind who is obsessed with learning as much as he can, and kills whoever gets in his way. Tampering with genetic makeup and cloning, are not good experiments; they can result with disastrous effects. Trying to control the traits and/or sex of a child, or whatever else one might want, by mixing up genes and chromosomes is not a full proof way to obtain their wishes. It†¦show more content†¦He would not participate in games with children his own age, when forced he would lose intentionally. He did this to hide his intellectual superiority. His explanation was, I prefer not to draw attention to myself. I dont want an yone to pry, and people seem to get so curious when there is a prodigy in their midst. When VJ faked his drop of IQ, he fooled the rest of the people into thinking he was normal, and no longer a genius. This caused him to be able to do his work without being watched carefully, and to obtain his normal exterior with little effort. If anything were to happen to the childs intellectual standings, for instance if they dropped, the child would feel disappointment about the fact that they would no longer be superior over his peers. The child would no longer feel capable of handling the pressures of their parents, because when one is different in any way, that person is constantly on show. Another effect from tampering with genetics is that there would always be a chance for something to go wrong. In Mutation, what went wrong with VJ was that his intelligence got him into trouble. He set high goals, which he considered to be top priority. Meaning that he would put everything else in his life last, and stop at nothing to obtain them. VJ took this to the extreme and in result he killed his brother, a friend of the family, a teacher, and his fathers business associate. When finding this information out, VJ was asked how heShow MoreRelatedGenetic Mutation And Genetic Mutations1079 Words   |  5 PagesA genetic mutation occurs after the formation of the DNA sequence has been altered (Reference, 2016). Some mutations are easily noticed; others are well hidden. Depending on which mutation the individual has depends on how severe or obvious the mutation is. There are several different mutations an individual can have, and some individuals may have more than one. Althoug h mutations can be harmless, they can still be a hindrance to the individual who has it. Different mutations are caused by differentRead MoreThe Consequences Of Mutations1075 Words   |  5 Pagesinsertion mutation occurs when one or more nitrogenous bases are inserted into a DNA strand. For example, if the original DNA strand without a mutation reads TAC/AAC/GGT/TGG/ATT, then an extra adenine was inserted into the fourth codon, then the new mutated DNA would read TAC/ACC/GGT/TAG/GAT/T. All codons after the mutation are shifted to the right, and completely changed. Once the unaffected DNA strand is transcribed into mRNA, it reads AUG/UUG/CCA/ACC/UAA. However, with the mutation, the mRNARead MoreThe Catalogue Of Somatic Mutations Essay1096 Words   |  5 PagesCatalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) is a comprehensive analysis of known mutational signatures across 40 distinct cancers in humans created by the mass collection of published peer-reviewed scientific journal articles (â€Å"Signatures of Mutational Process in Human Cancer†, 2016). Compared to nonsmokers, smokers had higher rates of mutational signatures 2, 4, 5, 13 and 16. Signature 4 is associated with lung, head, neck, and liver cancer and is characterized by C to A mutation substitutions.Read MoreMissense Mutation Essay844 Words   |  4 Pages2. Materials and methods 2.1 Dataset Known disease-associated mutations were retrieved from The Human Gene Mutation Database (http://www.hgmd.cf.ac.uk/ac/index.php). The benign polymorphisms were retrieved from the NCBI dbSNP (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/snp/) and previous literature. A variety of genes responsible for different lysosomal diseases were analyzed in this study and listed here. IDUA, mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I); IDS, MPS II; GLB1, GM1 gangliosidosis or Morquio disease, typeRead MoreDna Mutations And Its Effects On Humans Essay1341 Words   |  6 PagesDNA Mutations Over a lifetime our DNA can undergo changes or ‘mutations’ in the sequence of bases; A, C, G and T. A mutation is a change that occurs in your DNA sequence, either due to mistakes when the DNA is being copied or as the result of environmental factors.Mutations are essential for evolution to occur because they increase genetic variation. Mutations can occur during DNA replication if errors are made and not corrected in time. The mutation can have a positive or negative affect on humansRead MoreGenetic Factors Of Gene Mutation1801 Words   |  8 PagesGene mutation is an official change in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Mutations are affected by the change in the DNA sequence. (U.S NLM, Para I) There can be many different types of mutations. Some examples are point mutations, missense mutation, nonsense mutation, frame shift mutation, silent mutation, deletion, insertion, and duplication. These mutations can either occur naturally or actually made to happen. Mutat ions can have a huge impact that can be beneficial or unhelpful. (MutationsRead MoreGenetic Mutations And The Human Genome1198 Words   |  5 PagesDid you know that there are hundreds of cool genetic mutations that you may not know about? Genetic mutations are permanent alterations of the nucleotide sequence of the genome (an organism s complete set of DNA) of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements. Genetic mutations can be good, there are all sorts of genetic mutations that can be good, it is as simple as the color of your eye or as complex as having a sprinting â€Å"superpower†. This also includes having the abilityRead MoreThe Genetic Mutation Fragile X Syndrome Essay960 Words   |  4 PagesThe genetic mutation Fragile X syndrome occurs on a segment of human DNA. Because the disease was first studied in 1943 by British physician James Purdon Martin and British human geneticist named Julia Bell, Fragile X is also referred to as Martin-Be ll syndrome. Though it was not until 1969 that scientist Herbert Lubs discovered what exactly causes Fragile X syndrome. He explained that those who obtain the mutation will possess an X chromosome with an unusual gap. The gap located on the chromosomeRead MoreThe Genetic Mutation Fragile X Syndrome Essay922 Words   |  4 PagesThe genetic mutation Fragile X syndrome is the most commonly inherited form of intellectual disability. Because the disease was first studied in 1943 by British physician James Purdon Martin and British human geneticist named Julia Bell, Fragile X is also referred to as Martin-Bell syndrome. Though it was not until 1969 that scientist Herbert Lubs discovered what exactly causes Fragile X syndrome. He explained that those who obtain the mutation will possess an X chromosome with an unusual gapRead MoreGenetic Mutation Of A Single Nucleotide Base809 Words   |  4 PagesSCD is genetic mutation that is caused by a genetic point mutation where a single n ucleotide base has been substituted by an incorrect base (also termed transversion). The transversion caused by the SCD will alter the codon, at the 17th nucleotide of the beta chain of hemoglobin molecule it would be incorrect; thus, when the mRNA carries the gene which codes for Hb molecule, at the 17th nucleotide the ribosome will start synthesizing a different amino acid. At the site of the Hb molecule its adenosine

Monday, May 18, 2020

Business Plan - 2833 Words

Contents Introduction 2 Operational Strategy 2 Environmental Audit in Existing Markets 3 PESTEL - Italy 3 PESTEL China 4 PESTEL - UK 5 Porter 5 Forces – Italy 6 Porter 5 Forces – China 7 Porter 5 Forces - UK 7 Product Life Cycle 8 SWOT Analysis 8 Internationalization - Pakistan 9 PESTEL – Pakistan 9 Porter’s 5 Forces – Pakistani Market 10 PORTER’S DIAMOND AND TOYS â€Å"R† US IN PAKISTAN 10 Entry Strategies for Pakistan 12 Conclusion 12 References 13 Introduction Boffi is a renowned high end luxury furniture manufacturing company with a diverse product range. Having its origin in Italy, it was founded in 1934 by Piero Boffi. Boffi has been operating for the past 70 years with its presence in countries such as Australia, Austria,†¦show more content†¦Legal Environment Similar to the Italian economy, the UK economy also imposes high taxes on manufacturers which is a major drawback for all companies operating in this country. Porter 5 Forces – Italy Bargaining Power of Buyers – Due to presence many SMEs the bargaining power of buyers is high due to availability of choice. Bargaining Power of Suppliers – Due to the fact that external suppliers and agents are costly to do business with, Boffi is in control of its entire value chain; rendering the bargaining power of suppliers to be low. Threat of Entry – There is existence of competition in the market – small and medium enterprises also have capabilities and huge advantages of entering the market, making the threat of new entrants into this market high. Substitute Products – There is existence of competition such as IKEA who offer substitute products, making the existence of substitute products high in the market. Competitor Rivalry – There exists many competitors in the market such as Bulthaup, Varenna and local Craftsmen making competitor rivalry high. Porter 5 Forces – China Bargaining Power of Buyers – Due to the need of buyers to improve their life style and standard of living, the bargaining power of buyers is high. Bargaining Power of Suppliers – The number of suppliers in the market are less, hence making the bargaining powerShow MoreRelatedBusiness Plan For A Business Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pagesbrand-new business, expand an existing company, or get financing for a business venture, you will need to write a business plan. A business plan not only lends your business a sense of credibility, but also helps you to cover all your bases, increasing your chances of success. Although writing a business plan can be a lengthy, intimidating project, it is not necessarily difficult. Here is an overview of how to write a successful business plan. What to Include in Your Business Plan Your businessRead MoreBusiness Plan For A New Venture1355 Words   |  6 PagesA business plan can be used for beginning a new business, to create a more profitable business or for consideration of new services and ideas. A business plan is a written document that gives details on a business idea or venture and present the outlook of the business over a number of years. This plan will guide the business project management and operations, assist in vital decisions and measure performance. There are many types of business plans and not one of them is considered a universal planRead MoreEssay about Creating a Business Plan1119 Words   |  5 Pagesyou must have guidelines, so to speak, to know where you are heading in the future. That is why before you can start a business you need to draw up a detailed business plan. Business plans are considered blueprints. A business plan is what is needed to get your business off the ground and to attract potential investors. A business plan is way to show that you are in the business to make money. Introduce the company and the product/service idea for the new venture. Triple S Night Club is a new companyRead MoreBusiness Plan For An Casual Dining Mexican Restaurant1804 Words   |  8 PagesThe critical analysis essay is based on the business plan of an upcoming casual dining Mexican restaurant in an upmarket locality of Benowa Gardens, Gold Coast, Queensland. The restaurant is called Burrito Bar, which specialises in modern Mexican food along with alcoholic drinks and operates on a franchising model. The business plan was made by one Mr.Paddu for the purpose of procuring a bank loan/private funding to kick-start the project. The business plan follows the general format used in the restaurant/hospitalityRead MoreRenee Business Plan5082 Words   |  21 PagesBusiness Plan for a Startup Business The business plan consists of a narrative and several financial worksheets. The narrative template is the body of the business plan. It contains more than 150 questions divided into several sections. Work through the sections in any order that you want, except for the Executive Summary, which should be done last. Skip any questions that do not apply to your type of business. When you are finished writing your first draft, you’ll have a collection of small essaysRead MoreBusiness Plan For A Business1546 Words   |  7 Pagesenterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative or risk†. They are usually characterized as people with greatly valued self-reliance, with high optimism and people who who strive for distinction through excellence. I am interested in starting my own basketball business and becoming an entrepreneur. In order to start a business I need a business plan. From research, I have learned that my business plan needs to have an executive summary, identification of my business, financial recordsRead MoreBusiness Plan For A Business840 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Business plans are statement of a business goals, reason they are attainable and plans on meeting it’ (FoxBuisness, 2013). A business plan maps the course and gives a detail plan on how these goals are achievable. It is also important to establish a solid business plan for funding. Some small business use venture capital, bank loans, personal funds, and private investors as sources of funding. The business plan must therefore, sell investors. A well-written convincing business plan can buy investorsRead MoreBusiness Plan1439 Words   |  6 PagesBusiness Plan What is Blueberry Nights? Type: bar and restaurant for young people Category: II. class Service method: plate service Menu type: A’la Carte Opening hours: Sunday to Wednesday 10:00-22:00 Thursday to Saturday 13:00-05:00 No day off Target market: students, tourists and residents Location: Budapest, Margit kà ¶rà ºt Few steps from Margaret Island Easy to reach by tram Seating capacity: 120 (80+40) 1st floor: kitchen area, 80 seated restaurant, bar, armchairsRead Morebusiness plan5494 Words   |  22 Pagesbecause we as a young generation that want to open new shop sold the â€Å"Keropok Leko†. OBJECTIVE OF THE ORGANIZATION Every business opportunity begins with the existence of various customers needs and wants for particular product or service. A need is something that is basic in life such as food, clothes and shelter. Therefore, our companies take these advantages and venture a business based on food industries. Our main activity is to manufacture keropok lekor that is made from fish paste, flour, and saltsRead MoreBusiness Plan For A Business1866 Words   |  8 Pages Business Plan Buiness model in theory and practice according to Wikipedia is used for a broad range of informal and forma l descriptions to represent the core aspects of a business, including the purposes of that business, its process, target customers, of ferings, strategies , infrastructure, organizational structures, trading practice, and operational processes and policies . Below, we would look at two kinds of business model (franchise and tradition al business) , their pros and cons, o r their

Monday, May 11, 2020

Questions and Answers Criminal Justice - 967 Words

Ms. Brooks 03/10/2012 UNIT 5 Essays Differentiate between fraud and abuse. Define fraud and abuse, identify at least three elements of each, and contrast the differences between them. Cite illustrative examples of the differences. Fraud is any and all means a person uses to gain an unfair advantage over another person. In most cases, to be considered fraudulent, an act must involve: – A false statement (oral or in writing) – About a material fact – Knowledge that the statement was false when it was uttered (which implies an intent to deceive) – A victim relies on the statement – And suffers injury or loss as a result Abuse is to wrongly or improperly; misuse.†¦show more content†¦These frauds essentially amount to trickery; the perpetrator fools the company into handing over its money. Check tampering schemes are fundamentally different. In these frauds the perpetrator takes physical control of a check and makes it payable to himself through one Of several methods. Check tampering schemes depend on factors such as access to the Companies check book, access to bank statements, and the ability to forge signatures or Alter other information on the face of the check. There are five principal methods used To commit check tampering: 1. Forged maker schemes 2. Forged endorsement schemes 3. Altered payee schemes 4. Concealed check schemes 5. Authorized maker schemes What internal controls can be implemented to minimize the ability to perpetrate a ghost employee scheme? Mandatory copies of employment picture I D s and forms and a second level of inspection of them. An employment picture stapled into employment file. Quarterly justification of employment files against payroll w/ a physical inspection of any new employees file. A second level of sign off on all the need for all new employees. For example, if your company has a janitorial staff. in order to hire a new janitor, require copies of the usual I9 ID s, be included into personal file. Have a signoff sheet for two levels of hiring authorization with clear printed and signed names, justifying the new employee. Have a picture of the new employeeShow MoreRelatedDifferences Between Power And Authority1341 Words   |  6 PagesQuestion 1: Distinguish between power and authority. Do you believe the foundation of criminal justice organizations is power or authority? Why? Give examples in everyday criminal justice life that reflect the differences among these concepts. Answer: According to Stojkovic, Kalinich, and Klofas (2015), power can be defined as â€Å"A construct that underscores that importance of how compliance among subordinates is achieved† (p. 288). Power can be at both a person and organizational level and thereRead MoreImportance of College Education in the Field of Criminal Justice656 Words   |  3 Pagesof College Education in Criminal Justice Field: The criminal justice field has careers that provide an individual with great rewards and significant opportunities to an extent that the profession is considered as one with the bright spots in employment. Even though education in this field has had a checkered history and past, it probably has a bright future because of the increased quest for quality in criminal justice education. In the past few years, the criminal justice field has been characterizedRead MoreWhy Is Discrimination Within The United States Criminal Justice System1539 Words   |  7 PagesWhy is discrimination present in the United States criminal justice system? How is the system setup for people of color to fail? This social problem is interesting for many reasons. Many people believe that racism is still a key factor in today’s society. The justice system, which should stand for equality and peace, in reality does spread the public’s beliefs of racism and an unfair justice system. 74.0% of blacks do not agree that the justice system treats people fairly and equally(Hurwitz andRead MoreQuiz 1 Essay1085 Words   |  5 Pages***Quiz 1**** Question 1 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points The search for the correct result essential to criminal procedure in a constitutional democracy means to: I. convict the guilty. II. plea bargain in weak cases. III. search for truth at any cost. IV. acquit the innocent. A. I, II, III, IV B. b. I, II, III C. c. I D. d. I, IV Answer Key: D Question 2 of 20 5.0/ 5.0 Points The trend today in balancing results and means in criminal justice: A. a. continues to be stronglyRead MoreTheories Of Law And Justice761 Words   |  4 PagesTheories of law and justice answers the questions on how/ why in society a person behavior could be seen or handle as a criminal (Akers Sellers, 2009). Also the theory helps explain why a certain behavior is consider illegal and what punishment needs to be taken for that behavior/conduct. To answer these questions, the theory looks at the variables which are social, economic, and economic which has it affects on law and justice (Akers Sellers, 2009). For theories of crime and criminal behavior it triesRead MoreWhat Is Your Career Choice?1643 Words   |  7 Pages#1 - Question: What is your career choice? #1 - Answer: My set goal for the future is to become a District Attorney. Although, I am certainly considering working as a judge later on in my career. #2 - Question: Why have you chosen this particular area? #2 - Answer: I chose this career because it is my passion. I want to help people that cannot help themselves. I want to speak for the voiceless and do everything in my power to bring justice to victims and their loved ones. My personal life andRead MorePolice And Criminal Evidence Act1498 Words   |  6 Pagesby when it comes to the treatment and rights of a suspect before they have turned into the ‘defendant’. This will have a main focus on Code A and Code C within the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE) 1984 and parts of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act (CJPOA) 1994. I will then address the two models of criminal process created by H. Packer; these models both have different values and create a debate on whether the rights of the defendant should be protected rather than the victim. TheRead MoreThe American Justice System929 Words   |  4 PagesThe American Justice system, to me, is flawed, but I do not feel that it has been neglected. It is a sad tru th that there are so many wrongs that occur in a system of corrections. However, I believe that the Justice System is playing â€Å"catch up† with society’s rapid acceleration of growth. In the space of just 10 years there has been: The Legalization of Marijuana, Legalization of Gay Marriage, Terror groups and organizations attacking large cities, Rioting has become more common, for instance inRead MoreEssay on Crime and Process Model889 Words   |  4 Pages2400 Adjudication Process Lesson Four Chapter 5 THE DYNAMICS OF COURTHOUSE JUSTICE 1. Read Chapter 120 - 145. i. Answer question 4 in Critical Thinking Questions on page 145. Answer may vary. Sample answer provided below. â€Å"In Barker v. Wingo, the Court stressed the legitimate reasons for the 16 trial continuances. But is there a danger that prosecutors might illegitimately seek continuances?† Answer: No, I don’t believe there is a danger that prosecutors may illegitimately seekRead MoreRacial Inequality919 Words   |  4 Pagesdiscussed in the American criminal justice system. Although racial discrimination is present in the criminal justice system, some people use the words inequality, discrimination, racism, and profiling loosely and do not understand how truly complex it is to prove that there actually is racial inequality present in the criminal justice system. Daniel P Mears, Joshua C. Cochran, and Andrea M. Lindsey article Offending and Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Criminal Justice: A Conceptual Framework for

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Christmas Essay example - 1314 Words

A few days before Christmas, Oxford street is swarming with last minute shoppers, laden with parcels and bags. Christmas is the highlight for many people, especially little childen, from as tall as your ankle to as tall as your knee. Small todlers were moaning and disappearing into the clothes racks like magicians disappearing in a puff of smoke entertaining the gullible audiences. Families and friends gradually emerge from clogged buses and congested trains, tired, exhausted and hungry even at this very early stage, as if they had spent the whole night awake, like a distressed parent waiting for their child to arrive home from a party but has still not arrived, two hours past their curfew.†¦show more content†¦The street is coated with a thick layer of snow, knee length, which was as soft, and as smooth as a fresh scoop of vanilla ice-cream. The snow was as white as the marzipan on a wedding cake, smooth as glass, flat as a pancake and beautiful as the wings of a butterfly opening for its first time. Along the street, above the distressed shoppers, was a sea of decorations, of all colours, simultaneously changing, on and off, to the rhythm of my feet, whilst ambling through the streets of Oxford. The Christmas lights were shaped in all kinds of shape you could possibly imagine and they were so bright that the twinkle in the lights glistened on the icing floor as though it was a star. It also shimmered on the shoes, which men were wearing. The combination of the snow and the Christmas lights makes me feel as though I was entering another world full of amusement, ecstasy and anticipation as Christmas draws in. The atmosphere is pleasant, though everybody seems to be distressed and having problems on their minds, as though they were carrying the weight of the whole, entire world on the shoulders. The shops are warm and snug after coming in from the cold outside. The feeling of a holiday coming up puts individuals in a ebullient, friendly,Show MoreRelatedChristmas Speech : Christmas Of Christmas1580 Words   |  7 PagesChristmas means Christmas... There s no doubt about it; the season to be jolly descends in December and now we re in November, Christmas is traipsing outside, pulling comical faces at the window - there s only so much you can take. I fancy going to the Supreme Court to attempt to reschedule Christmas for March 2019; y know change the face of consumerism and tradition as we know it - but Christmas means Christmas... this is deficient of fanfaronade, and straight to the point. There s evidenceRead MoreThe Christmas Of The German Christmas Essay1301 Words   |  6 Pagesexplained to us how the Christmas was celebrated differently in the two countries. Here are some of the things I learned   There is a huge difference of how Christmas is celebrated in America and how it is celebrated in Germany. Many Christmas traditions that we have in America originated from Germany. The Christmas tree custom was brought to America by German immigrants. In America Christmas is celebrated on December 25th and in Germany it is celebrated on the 24th and the 25th. Christmas in America has beenRead MoreThe Christmas Gift Of Christmas Essay733 Words   |  3 PagesThe Christmas Gift Christmas was less than two weeks away. Daisy felt her usual uneasiness creep over her. Eight-year-old Ryan and five-year-old Rita were agog with excitement. Little did they know all their mother had to go through to ensure they had a normal Christmas like their friends. The trouble was Peter. Peter did not believe in celebrating Christmas. â€Å"It’s a waste of money! It’s just commercial propaganda.† He started his tirade when there was over a month left for Christmas and the storesRead MoreThe Tethered Christmas Feather ( Christmas )1539 Words   |  7 PagesThe Tethered Christmas Feather Not all miracles come in big packages. In fact some are the tiniest of all. Yet a miracle is a miracle no matter how small! It all started one very busy afternoon, the hustle and bustle of the holiday season was making people act frantic and a bit rude. The usual fanfare of spending money, counting packages, forgetting gifts and in the endless swirl of presents for Christmas it seemed Christmas got lost. I remember when I was a child Christmas was a special treat. ItRead MorePhilippine Christmas1602 Words   |  7 PagesPhilippine Christmas The Philippines is known as the Land of Fiestas, and at Christmas time, this is especially true. Filipinos are proud to proclaim their Christmas celebration to be the longest and merriest in the world. It begins formally on December 16 with attendance at the first of nine pre-dawn or early morning masses and continues on nonstop until the first Sunday of January, Feast of the Three Kings, the official end of the season. The Philippines is the only Asian country where ChristiansRead MoreIs Christmas Lost Its Significance?986 Words   |  4 PagesHas Christmas lost its significance? When stores start putting out Christmas decorations in October, it is unhesitatingly apparent that Christmas has become too commercialized. Wishing someone a Merry Christmas, has become almost non-existent to express. In today s society, it seems everyone has to be politically correct as to not offend anyone. Retail establishments and the workplace alike have also de-valued the true meaning of Christmas. Celebrations allowing coworkers the opportunity to mingleRead MoreThe Commercialization Of Christmas And Easter1609 Words   |  7 Pagesescape the lure of commercialism. Although advances in technology have made consumerism more readily available to people world-wide, the root of secularization of the church can be traced back hundreds of years. Of course the commercialization of Christmas and Easter stands out amongst holidays celebrated by Christians; other religions also include elaborate festivities and gift giving during their religious celebrations. In addition to the merchandising during the holidays, there are countless storesRead MoreChristmas, 2009 Essay737 Words   |  3 Pagesalways been very excited and waiting patiently for Christmas to arrive because I always thought on Christmas as an occasion when the family gets together. And this past year (2009) was not different from the others; I was very excited waiting for Christmas. Especially, because I was going to spend this holiday in Mexico with my grandma, aunts, uncles and cousins, but all that emotion did not take me to a Christmas full of joy as the past years. Christmas was very important to me because it was Camila’sRead MoreA Prayer Ceremony For Christmas1253 Words   |  6 PagesSource 1 displays a Indigenous prayer ceremony to prepare for Christmas. The ceremony is influenced by Aboriginal culture such as their conne ction with the land and the spirits of the First Peoples. For Aborigines â€Å"all objects are living and share the same soul and spirit as them†. Spirituality is heavily incorporated into the everyday lives of Aboriginals. Spirituality can be defined as the sense of a connection to something bigger than yourself and involves a search for the meaning of life. Read MoreThe And The Perfect Christmas Tree852 Words   |  4 PagesThis story is true or at least exactly as I remember it. Today, as I begin this book, I am 52 years, 5 months and 6 days old and the perfect Christmas Tree is a gift that I have carried in my since I was four. It has taught me about how unconditional love really feels and reminds me that the simple things we do, not because we want to, but because we love someone makes the world a better place. For the first time I am sharing the whole story with the world. It is a little scary and I have held in

The Re-Emerging Russian Superpower Free Essays

The tensions between Russia and Ukraine at the start of the year have generated renewed analytical interest in Russia’s re-emerging position as a superpower, driven chiefly by its actual, or potential, domination of the global supplies of energy. Along with its role as a swing supplier of oil (enabling it to manipulate the balance of power between OPEC and the industrialised consumers), the episode has highlighted Russia’s position as the pre-eminent supplier of gas. Russia controls a third of global proven gas reserves, with Gazprom already becoming the dominant supplier in the EU and Turkey, in addition to Russia’s â€Å"near abroad†, including the energy-hungry Ukraine. We will write a custom essay sample on The Re-Emerging Russian Superpower or any similar topic only for you Order Now However, the drivers of Russia’s potential for becoming an energy superpower are not limited to its own resources. An additional factor is Russia’s near monopoly over the Central Asian export infrastructure, which remains unbroken by the single Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline (in operation since May 2005). Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the continued instability in the Middle East (which some argue has been deepened, rather than reduced, by the US invasion of Iraq) has boosted Russia’s position as the aspiring centre of energy geopolitics. Add to this several other key factors  ­ such as the long-term outlook for high energy prices, the limited ability of the US and EU to diversify their supply sources and Russia’s growing ability to play a China and/or Iran â€Å"card† both in energy and geopolitics  ­ and the picture that emerges is one of a global energy superpower, capable in many ways to counter the might of present-day sole superpower  ­ the United States. Furthermore, there have been significant signs that this re-emerging superpower also means business in the military sphere. Russia has recently commissioned a new generation of missiles (Topol-M), capable of fitting a nuclear warhead and able to evade current US anti-missile defence systems. While not signalling a return to a Cold War style arms race, this development suggests Russia is no longer willing to refrain from a bit of old fashioned sabre rattling, when it feels the need to do so. At the same time, Moscow has notified those who need to know of its determination to protect its vital strategic interests. While not seeking to become the exclusive great power player in the former Soviet Union, Russia has let it be known that it does not regard Western interests in the region as being on par with its own. It will therefore resist Western incursion in the area deemed incompatible with the pursuit of legitimate economic and political objectives. In practice this boils down to the promotion of anti-Russian regimes in the region, through so called â€Å"colour revolutions†. Thus, in an unusual move, Russia’s defence minister, Sergei Ivanov has written in The Wall Street Journal that the Kremlin’s key objective is the prevention of Western-fomented regime changes in Russia’s â€Å"near abroad†  ­ the CIS. How to cite The Re-Emerging Russian Superpower, Papers

Judicial Interpretation of Tax Treaties

Question: Discuss about the Judicial Interpretation of Tax Treaties. Answer: Introduction: In this case, Eric was carrying on a business of producing milk in a land acquired in 1990. The land was purchased at a price of $750000.00. The business was successful for 26 years but recently it generated insufficient profit. Therefore, Eric decided to sell the plot of land. The real estate agent offered two options for selling the land the first option is to sell the land in 50 parts for $ 3000000.00 or in a single transaction for $2500000.00. In selling the land in part, it will take 3 months for approval and another 6montrhs for completing the entire sale. The issue here is to establish whether Eric is required to include in his assessable income the earnings from sale of land from both the options: Subdividing and selling of land in 50 lots for a total of $3000000 over a period of six months; Selling of land in one transaction for $250000.00 without subdividing land; The section 4-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 provides that it is necessary for an individual, corporation or an entity to pay tax on their income. The income on which the taxes are paid is known as taxable income. The taxable income is calculated after subtracting allowable deduction under section 8-1 of the ITAA 1997 from the assessable income (Saez 2013). The assessable incomes are of two type ordinary income and statutory income. The sections 6-5 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 provide that income according to the common concept is known as ordinary income (Burkhauser et al. 2015). The incomes that are not regular income are known as statutory income under section 6-10 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997. The capital gain is an example of statutory income. The section 102-5 of the ITAA 1997 states those net capital gains are included in the assessable income (Alvaredo et al. 2013). It is important for a business to determine whether income from particular activity is ordinary income or capital gain because amount included in the assessable income will be different. The distinction between capital receipt and revenue is important because of the judicial analysis of the section 8-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997. In the case of Sun Newspapers ltd V FCT (1938), it was held that distinction is made between the capital expenditure and revenue expenditure by establishing the process by which business earns regular income (Grubert and Altshuler 2016). The principles that have been applied for distinguishing between the capital receipt and revenue income is the flow of income. The ordinary income as declared in section 6-5 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 includes earnings from personal exertion, business income, isolated transactions and income from property (Graetz and Warren 2014). The section 25-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 term isolated transaction have been referred to include transactions that are outside the ordinary course of business activity and the transaction that have been entered into by non business taxpayer (Facc io and Xu 2015). The Taxation Ruling 92/3 in Para 6 states whether a profit that have been made form isolated transaction should be include in the ordinary income depends on particular circumstances of the case. In Para 13 of the Taxation Ruling 92/3 it states that whether a particular transaction is an isolated business transactions depends on the following: The nature of the business activity; The scale of activity undertaken by the enterprise; The amount involved in the transaction and the profit that have been made; The nature, range and complication of the business transaction; The transaction involves purchase and disposal of property; The moment of the transaction; Therefore based on the above discussion it can be said that if a particular transaction is considered as isolated transaction then income derived from that operation should be regarded as ordinary income. In the case of Scottish Australian mining Co V Federal commissioner of Taxation (1950) it was held that realization from capital assets are generally is regarded as capital. In the case of Federal commissioner of Taxation V Whit fords beach Pty Ltd (1982) it was held that if a capital assets is used for venturing in trading activity then it is an ordinary income (Hanlon and Pinder 2013). Application In this case, Eric decided to sell a plot of land that was used for farming business. Therefore, it is capital assets and as per the case of Scottish Australian mining Co V Federal commissioner of Taxation (1950) this profit from sale of land should be regarded as capital gain. However it can be seen that if Eric chooses the first option then it satisfies the condition laid down in the Para 13 of the Taxation Ruling 92/3. Then in such case, the transaction is considered as an isolated transaction and is treated as an assessable income (Rimmer et al. 2014). If Eric chooses, the second option of not dividing the plot and selling it in lump sum then in such case the capital gain or loss will be computed and that will be integrated in the assessable income. The section 102-22 of the ITAA 1997 states that capital gain is calculated by using two methods and then it is compared to include it in the assessable income. The two methods are discount method under division 114 and discount method under division 115. The calculations are given below: Computation of Capital Gain Particulars Discount Method Indexation method Sales Proceed $ 2,500,000.00 $ 2,500,000.00 Less: Cost of acquisition $ (750,000.00) $ (873,305.08) commission $ (62,500.00) $ (62,500.00) Gross Capital Gain $ 1,687,500.00 $ 1,564,194.92 Less: Discount 50% $ (843,750.00) Net Capital Gain $ 843,750.00 $ 1,564,194.92 Table 1: Capital Gain (Sources: created by author) Based on the above argument it can be concluded that as there if the plot of land is subdivided into 50 plot and sold for a period of 6 months. Then it should be considered as a isolated business transaction and income should be included as assessable income as an ordinary. The expenses that are made for the purpose of sale are allowed as deduction. On the other hand, if the land is sold in one transaction as a single plot then it is considered as income from capital gain. The calculation above shows that capital gain is less in discount method so this should be included in assessable income. In this case, George Eals was born in USA but currently he is a permanent resident of Australia. He currently works in technology firm and is required to visit oversea. In the year 2016, George has stayed outside Australia for 150 days. The firm has offered George for a job outside Australia for three years. He will be allowed to visit Australia for one month after every three months. The issue in this case is to determine the residential status of George in the flowing two circumstances: If children and house lives in the house of Sydney; If the house is sold and the family moves with George; The determination of residential status is important because it affects the assessable income of the taxpayer. The section 6-5 and section 6-10 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1997 states that in case of a resident the income received from all the sources are taxable. This section also provides that in case of nonresident the income received only form Australian sources are assessable (Sharkey 2015). In the case of Federal Commissioner of Taxation V Applegate (1979), it was held that it is necessary to establish the residential status of an individual annually. It was held in the case of Levene V the Commissioner of Inland Revenue (1928) that for the purpose of tax a person can be resident for more than one country. The section 995-1 of the ITAA 1997 states the meaning of resident. It is provided in the section that for the purpose of tax an individual residing in Australia is regarded as resident for the purpose of tax (Wickramasuriya 2014). The residential status of an individual is ascertained after referring to the rules provided in the section 6-1 of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936. The Para 32 of the Taxation Ruling 98/17 provide four test for determining the residential status: The first test is to ascertain the residential status in accordance with the ordinary concept and it is known as common law test; The domicile rule test is the second test and according to this rule the residential status is ascertained after determining the permanent place of residence of the taxpayer; The183 days rule test is the third test and according to this test if an individual resides in Australia for 183 days or more then the person is considered as resident for the purpose of tax; The fourth test is the superannuation test that is applicable to all the government employees that are working abroad. In section 6-1 of the ITAA 1936 provides that the expression resides in used in the legislation in the ordinary sense and no further clarification is provided. Therefore, in accordance with the ordinary concept any individual residing in Australia is regarded as resident for the purpose of tax (Garbarino 2016). The domicile rules states that the there are two conditions that needs to be fulfilled for deciding the residential status of a person. The first condition of the rule is that the person must have a residence in Australia (Palassis 2014). The subsequent condition is that the person should not have a permanent place of abode outside Australia. The taxpayer will be considered as resident if these two conditions are satisfied. In the case of Udny V Udny (1869), the meaning of domicile is stated as a place that the individual considers as a home. If an individual resides in Australia for more than 183 days or more then the individual is regarded as resident. The two additional conditions are that the individual does not have a permanent place outside Australia and the individual has decided to reside in Australia. The fourth test is not applicable in this case as the taxpayer is not a government employee. The Taxation Ruling 98/17 also states that if any one of the rule is satisfied then the person is considered as resident for the reason of tax (Love 2015). Application In this case, George is a resident of Australia but has stayed overseas for 150 days during the year 2016. Therefore, 183 days rule is not satisfied. George has a permanent place of abode in Australia where his three child and wife resides therefore he has satisfied the domicile test. Based on this discussion it can be said that during the year 2016 George was a resident for the purpose of tax. As per section 6-5 and section 6-10 of the ITAA 1997 for a resident income received from all the sources is taxable. In 2016, the income received form Google and salary both are taxable in Australia (Appiah-Adu 2013). The second issue provides that George will have to predominantly stay outside Australia for three years and will be coming to Australia for only three months in a year. The residential status of George is assessed based on further two conditions: The children and house lives in the house of Sydney If the family of George stays in Australia then he will continue to have a permanent pale of adobe in Australia. Hence, the domicile rule will be satisfied and George will be regarded as resident for the purpose of tax. Then in such case both the salary and investment income from Google will be taxable in Australia. The house is sold and the family moves with George In this situation, George will not have a permanent place of adobe so the domicile rule is not satisfied. As earlier assessments have shown that George satisfies no other rule of residency, so he will be regarded as nonresident for the purpose of tax. In this situation, income received as salary is taxable as it is received from a firm based in Australia. However, profits received from investment are not taxable as the source of earnings is outside Australia (Zirgulis and Staehr 2015). Conclusion Based on the above discussion it can be concluded that for the year 2016 George is a resident. Therefore, all the income received is taxable in Australia. It is advised that if George takes the overseas assignment for three years and keeps his family in Australia then he will be regarded as resident for the purpose of tax. On the other hand, if George takes his family with him then he will be regarded as nonresident for the purpose of tax. Hence only income that are received from Australia is taxable. Reference Alvaredo, F., Atkinson, A.B., Piketty, T. and Saez, E., 2013. The top 1 percent in international and historical perspective.The Journal of Economic Perspectives,27(3), pp.3-20. Appiah-Adu, K., 2013. The Norwegian experience: potential lessons for Ghana and other African countries. InGovernance of the Petroleum Sector in an Emerging Developing Economy(pp. 271-283). Gower Oxford. Burkhauser, R.V., Hahn, M.H. and Wilkins, R., 2015. Measuring top incomes using tax record data: A cautionary tale from Australia.The Journal of Economic Inequality,13(2), pp.181-205. Faccio, M. and Xu, J., 2015. Taxes and capital structure.Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,50(03), pp.277-300. Garbarino, C., 2016.Judicial Interpretation of Tax Treaties: The Use of the OECD Commentary. Edward Elgar Publishing. Graetz, M.J. and Warren Jr, A.C., 2014. Unlocking Business Tax Reform.Tax Notes,145, pp.707-712. Grubert, H. and Altshuler, R., 2016. Shifting the Burden of Taxation from the Corporate to the Personal Level and Getting the Corporate Tax Rate Down to 15 Percent. Hanlon, D. and Pinder, S., 2013. Capital gains tax, supply?driven trading and ownership structure: direct evidence of the lock?in effect.Accounting Finance,53(2), pp.419-439. Love, P., 2015. Frank Anstey, money power and the Labour split in war time.Victorian Historical Journal,86(1), p.161. Palassis, S.N., 2014. From The Hague to the Balkans: A Victim-oriented Reparations Approach to Improved International Criminal Justice.International Criminal Law Review,14(1), pp.1-41. Rimmer, X., Smith, J. and Wende, S., 2014. The incidence of company tax in Australia.Economic Round-up, (1), p.33. Saez, E., 2013. Income inequality: evidence and policy implications.Arrow Lecture, Stanford University. Sharkey, N., 2015. Coming to Australia: Cross border and Australian income tax complexities with a focus on dual residence and DTAs and those from China, Singapore and Hong Kong-Part 1.Brief,42(10), p.10. Watson, M., 2013. The Foundation for Law, Justice and Society. Wickramasuriya, T., 2014. Dempsey: Don't call Australia home.Taxation in Australia,49(3), p.138. Zirgulis, A. and Staehr, K., 2015.Tax competition for capital with an emphasis on productivity spillovers(Doctoral dissertation, ISM University of Management and Economics).

Thursday, April 30, 2020

What is social work and why do we need it free essay sample

To clearly define what social work is can be difficult due to the diversity of the profession. The reasons we need social work are a little easier to identify. Through examination of current literature, this paper examines what social work is and why we need social work Often when we meet someone new the first question they ask is â€Å"what do you do for a living? † This question of what we do appears to be something that, in many ways, defines us as a person. When the question of what we do is answered with â€Å"I am a social worker† it tends to lead to additional questions such as â€Å"what is a social worker? † or â€Å"what does a social worker do? † Through examination of some of the current literature on the topic of social work, this paper will seek to answer the question â€Å"what is social work and why do we need it? † The question â€Å"what is social work? † should be an easy one to answer. We will write a custom essay sample on What is social work and why do we need it or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The definition of social work is readily available from The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) who defines social work as: â€Å"The social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance well-being. Utilising theories of human behaviours and social systems, social work intervenes at the point where people interact with their environments. Principles of human rights and social justice are fundamental to social work† (IFSW, 2012). But what does that really mean? In order to fully understand what social work is, first we need to examine social works origins (Skehill, 2007). According to Mendes (2010), understanding the history of social work is an important aspect in developing social works identity. Social works origins can be traced back to early 1800’s to a group known as the ‘Friendly Visitors’ (Chenoweth McAuliffe, 2012). The Friendly Visitors would go and visit poor and needy families and assess them and then attempt to help them. The Charity Organization Society (COS) was the next step in social works historical development, again focused on individuals needs (Chenoweth McAuliffe, 2012). The Settlement Movement followed the COS and this was where a split began to form in the role of social work, one which can easily be seen today (Hugman, 2009). According to Hugman (2009), The Settlement Movement took a more structured approach to people’s problems and looked working more on a community level. This approach is classed by Hugman (2009) as a macro-level approach, one which differs from the more individualistic approach which is categorized as a micro-level approach. According to Sandu (2010), many American and European social workers in the early 20th century started to believe that individual treatment was pointless if not done in conjunction with larger social issues which addressed social policy and change on a larger level. Social work has evolved since its beginnings. According to Hugman (2009), social work has constantly been plagued with disagreement regarding its true identity. From a very individualistic focus during its beginnings, social work appears to have split into two parts. Social work can focus on the individual, seeking to use a therapeutic approach to help the individual, or focus on larger social objectives, such as social justice and human rights. Payne (2005) believes that the nature of social work can be divided into three areas, the Reflective-therapeutic approach, the Individualist-reformist approach and the Socialist-collectivist approach. Both the Reflective-therapeutic approach and the Individualist-reformist approach focus more on individual change while the Socialist-collectivist approach focuses on larger social systems (Payne, 2005). While both approaches are essential aspects of social work Chu, Tsui and Yan (2009) believe the pursuit of social justice must be balanced with individual well being. Hudson (1997) believes that this duel focus on both the individual and society as a whole has allowed social work to draw information from other human services professions such as psychology and sociology and while this sees some overlap between different human services professions, it has also allowed social work to develop its own identity. This divide between micro and macro approaches to social work makes it difficult to clearly define exactly what social work is. The definition of what social work is appears to be very much dependent upon the individual social workers approach to social work as a whole and their practice framework, which helps them define exactly what social work is. However, there are a few key principals which all social workers would agree upon. According to Chu, Tsui and Yan (2009), the principals of human rights and social justice are regarded by social workers as fundamental elements of social work. The ultimate goal of social work is to help people solve their problems while at the same time retaining their dignity (Chu, Tsui Yan, 2009). That is what social work ultimately is, helping people with their problems, while at the same time helping them hold onto their dignity. But why is social work needed? The social work profession finds itself in a unique position. The very thing which makes it so difficult to define, the conflicting views between individual work and larger social issues are the very thing which explains why we need social work. Social workers can work with individuals, families, groups and communities. They can work on change and update to social policy, research as well as education and training (Chenoweth McAuliffe, 2012). Having such a massive domain to cover allows social workers to experience what changes are actually needed. Social workers ability to look at both the micro level and the macro level allow them the unique opportunity to see the things that need to be changed on an individual level and try to make those changes required on a macro level. Very few other professions have this ability. Some focus on individual change, some focus on social policy, law and human rights, but few if any have the ability to do both. Society needs social workers because there will always be people in need, people who are less fortunate than others. Those people need a voice, they need advocates and social work offers some level of hope to the less fortunate. To clearly define what social work is can be difficult due to the diversity of the profession. The reasons we need social work are a little easier to identify. Through examination of current literature, this paper has briefly examined what social work is and why we need social work.